Skin cell division
Cell division is the essential process by which all living things reproduce, but many hurdles must jumped in order for division to be successful. A cell will literally disassemble, replicate, and reorganize nearly all of its structures, partitioning its contents into two newly born daughter cells. In these mouse skin cells, the middle cell has condensed its replicated DNA (in white) and rounded up to facilitate this reorganization. Cells must also decide how they will distribute proteins to each daughter. Here, a protein known as Celsr1 (in red) has been internalized from the cell membrane. Once division is complete, these proteins will be redistributed back to their correct locations within the newly formed cells.
Image captured and submitted by Joel Tamayo, Princeton University.
If Latinos Said The Stuff White People Say
this is more education about your vagina than you’ll receive in a US public school system so. read up! men too!
I love this infographic!
I will never get over the hate that surrounds Ohio.FUKING MOST BEAUTIFUL POST IVE EVER SEEN DEAR FUCKING CHRIST BLESS
okay so I’ve seen a lot of really cool things around the internet so I thought I’d compile a bunch of references and fun things into one easy post for y’all! this has been a real long time in the making but it’s finally finished uwu (◡‿◡✿)
- any links on this masterpost broken? use this!BEING AN ADULT
- 50 sci fi and fantasy works every socialist should read
- a simple unbiased political resource for young adults in the uk
- a whole bunch of cv/resume templates
- any lipstick colour you want for cheap
- college survival masterpost
- food for broke college kids
- how to answer common job interview questions
- how to become an adult
- how to look busy even when you’re not
- learn languages
- need to escape from a bad home situation?
- short introductions to politics and other grown up issues
- should i vote ukip?
- what are my transferable skills?
- what the fuck should i make for dinner?
- writing a cover letterCHEER UP
- 24/7 cute animal livestreams
- 7 cups of tea
- cute websites
- feeling ok?
- feeling stressed?
- for when u hav feelings
- for when ur sad my lil pumpkin
- happy things
- positivity tag
- trekkie care packageFILMS
- afi’s top 100
- all the disney and pixar u could want
- animated faves
- find a good movie to watch
- ghibli \ wes anderson \ sofia coppola
- good movies to watch whenever
- lgbtqia+ movies
- lovely big movie masterpost
- ooo scary movies
- studio ghibli subs n dubs
- totally 90’s
- what do you mean we’re not 10 any more?FOOD
- a whole bunch of delicious recipes
- breakfast on the go
- cheap and healthy snacks
- ever wanted to try lembas bread?
- lavender lemonade
- make your own vitamin water
- microwave mug snacks
- my food and recipe tag
- no more ramen
- quick and easy snacks
- quick and easy soups
- recipes from your favourite fandoms
- smoothie recipes for every occasion
- study snacks
- supercook ingredient match
- thinking about going vegan?FUN STUFF
- cute games
- if ur real bored
- coolio psychological games to make u think
- easy blanket nest
- more cutie games
- plants that help bees
- realistic drawings and animations of plants
- reject someone in elvish
- waste time!
- write a letter to a disney characterGENDER & SEXUALITY
- chest binder tutorial
- helpcorgi’s gender + sexuality masterpost
- if someone tries to tell you your sexuality isn’t natural
- lgbtqia+ movies
- movies about gay ladies
- music monday
- resources for cis allies
- roundup of the best ya novels w lgbtqia+ characters
- simple cami binderMENTAL ILLNESS
- 7 cups of tea
- anxiety masterpost
- bipolar disorder masterpost
- depression masterpost
- disorder specific coping strategies
- feeling isolated?
- help w mental illness
- if you’re not good at reading body language
- need help but low on cash?
- panic and anxiety info and resources
- read web text more easily
- recovering from emotional trauma
- recovery resourcesSCHOOL
- a fuckload of free books
- back to school masterpost
- can’t afford microsoft word?
- cool sciency things
- exam survival
- getting up in the morning
- gigantic study masterpost
- learn anything | also on youtube
- lots and lots of free books
- peer-reviewed alternative to wikipedia
- pull an all-nighter
- remember more of the things you study
- simple essay structure
- study skills
- useful websitesSELF CARE
- alleviate menstrual cramps
- boost your confidence
- funny non gendered sex education
- love yourself!
- more sex ed
- on your period?
- self help after anxiety
- stop biting your nails
- stop procrastinating
- stop skipping breakfast
- super silky summer legs
- tumblr saviour for the rest of the webSOUNDS
- all the music posts you’ve reblogged
- calming noises
- daft punk
- get shit done mix
- music to write to
- my mixes on 8tracks
- star trek ambient sounds
- star trek ds9 infirmary background ambience
- when you can’t remember the name of a song
- which artist should i listen to next?THEMES
- brilliant theme makers and other useful things
- list of simple theme makers
- make your own theme from scratch
- the cutest themes on this websiteTV
- 90’s cartoons
- black comedy written by charlie brooker
- bob ross’ joy of painting
- cute urban fantasy miniseries w positive depiction of a disabled character
- danish political intrigue w subtitles
- every star trek episode ever
- gangsters in the ’20s - gr8 lady characters
- giles & sue
- how to watch classic who | now here’s the masterpost!
- jack davenport and idris elba fight vampires
- paul mcgann fan? you will be after this
- series about cool people starting a colony on another planet - if you enjoy babylon 5 and deep space nine you’ll love this
- the hour
- the x files
- twin peaksMISC
Edward Curtis - The North American Indian
“In 1906, J. P. Morgan provided Curtis with $75,000 to produce a series on the North American Indian. The work was to be in 20 volumes with 1,500 photographs.
Morgan’s funds were to be disbursed over five years and were earmarked to support only fieldwork for the books, not for writing, editing, or production of the volumes. Curtis himself would receive no salary for the project, which was to last more than 20 years.
Curtis’s goal was not just to photograph, but to document, as much American Indian (Native American) traditional life as possible before it disappeared.
He wrote in the introduction to his first volume in 1907:
The information that is to be gathered…respecting the mode of life of one of the great races of mankind, must be collected at once or the opportunity will be lost.
Curtis made over 10,000 wax cylinder recordings of Indian language and music.
He took over 40,000 photographic images from over 80 tribes.
He recorded tribal lore and history, and he described traditional foods, housing, garments, recreation, ceremonies, and funeral customs.
He wrote biographical sketches of tribal leaders, and his material, in most cases, is the only written recorded history although there is still a rich oral tradition that documents history.”
1. Klamath Indian at Crater Lake
2. Two Whistles, Apsaroke
3. Dancing to Restore an Eclipsed Moon
7. Bear Bull - Blackfoot
8. Red Cloud
9. Apache Gaun
10. Offering to the Sun - San Ildefonso
What a picture of Indian character this affords: a mere infant starting out alone into the fastnesses of the mountain wilds, to commune with the spirits of the infinite, a tiny child sitting through the night on a lonely mountain-top, reaching out its infant’s hands to God! On distant and near-by hills howl the coyote and the wolf. In the valleys and on the mountain side prowl and stalk all manner of animals. Yet alone by the little fire sits the child listening to the mysterious voices of the night.
Biologists have long considered cells to function like self-cleaning ovens, chewing up and recycling their own worn out parts as needed. But a new study challenges that basic principle, showing that some nerve cells found in the eye pass off their old energy-producing factories to neighboring support cells to be “eaten.” The find, which may bear on the roots of glaucoma, also has implications for Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other diseases that involve a buildup of “garbage” in brain cells.
The study was led by Nicholas Marsh-Armstrong, Ph.D., a research scientist at the Kennedy Krieger Institute and an associate professor in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine’s Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, together with Mark H. Ellisman, Ph.D., a neuroscience professor at the University of California, San Diego. In a previous study, the two had seen hints that retinal ganglion cells, which transmit visual information from the eye to the brain, might be handing off bits of themselves to astrocytes, cells that surround and support the eye’s signal-transmitting neurons. They appeared to pass them to astrocytes at the optic nerve head, the beginning of the long tendril that connects retinal ganglion cells from the eye to the brain. Specifically, they suspected that the neuronal bits being passed on were mitochondria, which are known as the powerhouses of the cell.
To find out whether this was really the case, Marsh-Armstrong’s research group genetically modified mice so that they produced indicators that glowed in the presence of chewed up mitochondria. Ellisman’s group then used cutting-edge electron microscopy to reconstruct 3-D images of what was happening at the optic nerve head. The researchers saw that astrocytes were, indeed, breaking down large numbers of mitochondria from neighboring retinal ganglion cells.
“This was a very surprising study for us, because the findings go against the common understanding that each cell takes care of its own trash,” says Marsh-Armstrong. It is particularly interesting that the newly discovered process occurs at the optic nerve head, he notes, as that is the site thought to be at fault in glaucoma. He plans to investigate whether the mitochondria disposal process is relevant to this disease, the second leading cause of blindness worldwide.
But the implications of the results go beyond the optic nerve head, Marsh-Armstrong says, as a buildup of “garbage” inside cells causes neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and ALS. “By showing that this type of alternative disposal happens, we’ve opened up the door for others to investigate whether similar processes might be happening with other cell types and cellular parts other than mitochondria,” he says.